Friday, May 2, 2008

Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ خان ), pen-name Ghalib (Urdu/Persian: غالب, ġhālib) and Asad (former pen-name)(27 December 179615 February 1869), was an all time great classical Urdu and Persian poet of the subcontinent. Most notably, he wrote several ghazals during his life, which have since been interpreted and sung in many different ways by different people. He is considered to be the most dominating poet of the Urdu language.

Ghalib's closest rival was poet Zauq, tutor of Bahadur Shah Zafar II, the then emperor of India with his seat in Delhi. There are some amusing anecdotes of the competition between Ghalib and Zauq and exchange of jibes between them. However, there was mutual respect for each other's talent. Both also admired and acknowledged the supremacy of Meer Taqi Meer, a towering figure of Urdu Poetry of 18th century. Another poet Momin, whose ghazals had a distinctly lyrical flavor, was also a famous contemporary of Ghalib.

Mirza Ghalib Contemporaries and disciples
Although Ghalib wrote in Persian as well, he is more famous for his ghazals written in Urdu. It is believed he wrote most of his very popular ghazals by the age of nineteen. His ghazals, unlike those of Meer Taqi Meer, contain highly Persianized Urdu, and are therefore not easily understood or appreciated by a vast majority of people without some extra effort. Before Ghalib, ghazal was primarily an expression of anguished love but he expressed philosophy, the travails of life and many such subjects, thus vastly expanding the scope of ghazal. This, together with his many masterpieces, will forever remain his paramount contribution to Urdu Poetry and Literature.
In keeping with the conventions of the classical ghazal, in most of Ghalib's verses, the identity and the gender of the beloved is indeterminate. The beloved could be a beautiful woman, or a beautiful boy, or even God. As the renowned critic/poet/writer Shamsur Rahman Faruqui explains, since the convention of having the "idea" of a lover or beloved instead of an actual lover/beloved freed the poet-protagonist-lover from the demands of "realism", love poetry in Urdu from the last quarter of the seventeenth century onwards consists mostly of "poems about love" and not "love poems" in the Western sense of the term. Ghalib's poetry is a fine illustration of this. Ghalib also excels in deeply introspective and philosophical verses.
The first complete English translation of Ghalib's love poems (ghazals) was written by Dr. Sarfaraz K. Niazi( and published by Rupa & Co in India and Ferozsons in Pakistan. The title of this book is Love Sonnets of Ghalib and it contains complete roman transliteration, explication and an extensive lexicon.

His Letters
His original Takhallus (pen-name) was Asad, drawn from his given name, Asadullah Khan. At some point early in his poetic career he also decided to adopt the taKhallus 'Ghalib' (meaning all conquering, superior, most excellent).
Popular legend has it that he changed his nom de plume to 'Ghalib' when he came across this sher (couplet) by another poet who used the taKhallus 'Asad':
The legend says that upon hearing this couplet, Ghalib ruefully exclaimed, "whoever authored this couplet does indeed deserve the Lord's rahmat (mercy) (for having composed such a deplorable specimen of Urdu poetry). If I use the taKhallus Asad, then surely (people will mistake this couplet to be mine and) there will be much la'anat (curse) on me!" And, saying so, he changed his takhallus to 'Ghalib'.
However, this legend is little more than a figment of the legend-creator's imagination. Extensive research performed by commentators and scholars of Ghalib's works, notably Imtiaz Ali Arshi and Kalidas Gupta Raza, has succeeded in identifying the chronology of Ghalib's published work (sometimes down to the exact calendar day!). Although the taKhallus 'Asad' appears more infrequently in Ghalib's work than 'Ghalib', it appears that he did use both his noms de plume interchangeably throughout his career and did not seem to prefer either one over the other.
See note at Urdu poetry#Pen names

His Takhallus
Indian Cinema has paid a tribute to the legendary poet through a film (in sepia/black and white) named Mirza Ghalib (made in 1954) in which Bharat Bhushan plays Ghalib and Suraiya plays his courtesan lover, Chaudvin. The musical score of the film was composed by Ghulam Mohammed and his compositions of Ghalib's famous ghazals are likely to remain everlasting favorites.
Pakistan Cinema has also paid tribute to the legendary poet through another film also named Mirza Ghalib. The film was directed by M.M. Billoo Mehra and produced as well by M.M. Billoo Mehra for S.K. Pictures. The music was composed by Tassaduq Hussain. The film starred Pakistan film superstar Sudhir playing Ghalib and Madam Noor Jehan playing his courtesan lover, Chaudvin. The film was released on November 24, 1961 and reached average status at the box-office, however, the music remains memorable in Pakistan to this day.
Gulzar produced a TV serial titled Mirza Ghalib. It was telecast on DD National and was quite well-accepted and liked by viewers. Naseeruddin Shah played Ghalib in the serial. The ghazals were sung by Jagjit Singh and Chitra singh.
Pakistan government in 1969 commissioned Khaliq Ibrahim (died 2006) to make a documentary on Mirza Ghalib. The movie was completed in 1971-2, and is regarded as a masterpiece. It is said, that the movie--a docu-drama--was historically more correct than what the official Pakistan government point of view was. Thus, it was never released. Till this date, barring a few private viewing, the movie is lying with the Department of Films and Publication, Government of Pakistan. The movie was made on 16 mm format. Ghalib's role was played by actor Subhani Bayunus, who later played this role in many TV productions.
Various Theatre groups have staged various plays related to the life of Mirza Ghalib,have shown different life styles and the way he used to live his life.One of the leading theatre group in New Delhi Pierrot's Troupe staged a play named "GHALIB IN NEW DELHI" where it was shown if Ghalib returns back to his beloved Dilli.and what all changes will he see here.It is a comedy directed by Dr.M.Sayed Alam.

Deewan-E-Ghalib Online

Urdu poetry
List of Urdu language poets

Thursday, May 1, 2008

For the football team of the same city, see Hull City A.F.C.
Hull FC is a professional rugby league football club formed in 1865 and based in Hull, England. They were one of the founder members of the Northern Union which was formed in 1895. Later that year they moved to the Hull Athletic Club's ground at The Boulevard, Airlie Street, which gave rise to their nickname "The Airlie Birds". Traditionally people from the west side of Hull supported Hull FC while Hull Kingston Rovers were supported by the east half, the 'border' usually being regarded as the River Hull. The club reverted to their former name of Hull FC in 1999, after Hull (then known as Hull Sharks) merged with Gateshead Thunder after both clubs ran into financial difficulties.
Old Faithful is a traditional Hull terrace song.

The club was formed by a group of ex-schoolboys from York, who had been at Rugby school, in 1865. The founders used to meet at the Young Mans Fellowship, at St. Mary's Church in Lowgate. The vicar at that time was the Reverend Scott and his 5 sons made up the nucleus of the team. The club immediately took on members who were plumbers and glaziers.
Soon another team, Hull White Star, was formed and the two clubs merged. Hull Football Club was one of the first clubs in the north of England to join the Rugby Football Union.
Hull were one of the initial 22 clubs to form the Northern Union after the acrimonious split from the Rugby Football Union in 1895. The club moved into the Hull Athletic Club at the Boulevard in 1895, and subsequently played their first ever match there in September of that year. 8,000 people turned out to witness the first club's match in which Hull beat Liversedge.
The early years of the Northern Union saw Hull prosper, and their black and white irregular hooped jerseys became one of the most famous and feared strips in the league. Between 1908-10, Hull lost three consecutive Challenge Cup finals, and has in fact lost in more major finals than anyone else.
In 1913, they paid a world record £600, plus £14 per match, to Hunslet for Billy Batten, one of only seventeen players, and the only representative from Hull FC, so far inducted into the British Rugby League Hall of Fame. A year later the Airlie Birds won their first Challenge Cup, beating Huddersfield in the semi-final and Wakefield Trinity in the final. Playing alongside Billy on that day was John Harrison (VC), the only professional sportsman to win the Victoria Cross, the holder of the club record for most tries in a season. In 1920, Batten was once again key in Hull's first ever Championship final, scoring the only try in the 3-2 victory over Huddersfield.
The early-1920s were bittersweet years for the club. In 1921, Hull won the Yorkshire Cup but lost the county championship, both against rivals Hull Kingston Rovers. Hull couldn't match the successes of 1914, losing a further two consecutive cup finals in 1922-23 to Rochdale Hornets and Leeds respectively, but they managed to win the Yorkshire Cup and finish top of the league.
In the early 1930s, Hull had a full back and goal kicker called Joe Oliver. Oliver was so dependable with the boot that the crowd at one match spontaneously started singing the Gene Autry song, Old Faithful at him. Hull supporters adopted the song as their battle cry from then on.
Hull's record attendance was set in 1936 when 28,798 turned up for the visit of Leeds for a third round Challenge cup match.

Early years
The 1952 Kangaroos visited the Boulevard on Monday 8th September. They had opened their tour with a victory at Keighley two days earlier, and they continued their winning run with a 28-0 victory over Hull.
In 1954, the black Welshman Roy Francis became the first black professional coach in any British team sport, when he coached Hull.
After the second world war, Hull won two Championship in three years, beating Halifax in 1956 and Workington Town in 1958. These two triumphs healed the wound of two successive Yorkshire Cupfinal defeats in 1955 and 1957. They lost in two further Challenge Cup finals to Wigan and Wakefield in 1959 and 1960. All these reverses, when one hand had been grasping so many trophies, gave Hull a steely resolve and a thirst for success.
With the coaching appointment of Arthur Bunting Hull FC began a period of dominance. Hull won all of their 26 Division Two matches in 1978-79, the only time a club has won all of its league matches in a season and returning to the top flight. The Airlie Birds lost the 1980 Challenge Cup final against Hull KR 10-5 and have never won at Wembley since, it was reputed that a makeshift sign was left on the A63 (the major westerly road out of Hull) that read "last one out turn the lights off!" due to most of the city travelling to Wembley for the final. In 1982, Hull, crushed by Widnes in the Premiership final, avenged the defeat with an 18-9 Challenge Cup replay win.
Hull eventually won the league in 1983 and also reached the Premiership final, the Challenge Cup final and the Yorkshire Cup final, but the latter trophy would be their only reward from the three finals. The signing of Australian Peter Sterling, a 2006 inductee into the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame, maintained Hull's strength, and Bunting's men went to their third successive Yorkshire Cup beating Hull KR 29-12, but were edged out in arguably the greatest ever Challenge Cup final of 1985 by Wigan at Wembley Stadium with a score of 28 to 24 in Wigan's favour. A number of subsequent coaches, such as Brian Smith (1988-91) failed to deliver consistent success. Hull lost the Premiership final in 1989 to Widnes, but two years later returned to beat them at Old Trafford under coach Noel Cleal.
Post World War two
When the Super League was formed, it was suggested that Hull should merge with Hull Kingston Rovers to form 'Humberside'. This was resisted but the club changed its name to Hull Sharks. It is unclear who came up with the 'Sharks' as a nickname but for a nautical city it was a fairly obvious choice.Hull FC finished below the cut-off point of 10th in the existing top flight and were excluded from the new Super League.
The club won promotion to the Super League until 1997. Hull and Gateshead Thunder merged at the end of 1999, after the owner of the two clubs could not afford to keep both afloat and Hull reverted to their original name, Gateshead later reforming as a new club but retaining the Thunder tag. Ex-St Helens and Gateshead Thunder coach Shaun McRae was at the helm from 2000 up to 2004.
After 107 years at the Boulevard, Hull moved in January 2003 to a £44m state-of-the-art council-owned Kingston Communications Stadium, more commonly known as the KC Stadium. They are joint tenants at the stadium alongside city's football team: the two teams have priority use at the stadium at the end of each sport's season, thus Hull FC receive priority during the early part of the football season, the situation being reversed at the early part of the rugby season. Shaun McRae left the club to return to Australia at the end of the 2004 season; he was replaced by former England coach John Kear, who had previously been McRae's deputy.
In his first season at the club, Kear led Hull to the Challenge Cup final for the first time since 1985. Hull defeated Leeds Rhinos 25-24 in a thrilling final at Cardiff's Millennium Stadium to lift the trophy. Paul Cooke's 77th minute try, which was converted by Danny Brough gave Hull a 1 point lead, which they held onto after Hull captain Richard Swain charged down a drop-goal attempt from Leeds skipper Kevin Sinfield in the dying seconds of the match.
John Kear left Hull FC on 3 April 2006 after a disappointing start to the season, which saw Hull FC lose 4 out of their first 7 league games and also their defence of the Challenge Cup being ended at the first hurdle against the Bradford Bulls in a 23-12 defeat, to be replaced by Peter Sharp who was recruited from Parramatta Eels where he was assistant coach. Between 14 April15 July 2006 Hull FC won 13 matches in succession, including a 27-26 defeat of the league leaders St Helens on the 8 June 2006. The last time they beat St Helens on their ground was 18 years ago. This run ended in defeat at Harlequins RL on the 23 July 2006. Hull managed to finish in second place, their highest league position in the Super League era. They lost to the league leaders St Helens in the first Grand Final playoff game, but succeeded in reaching the final by defeating the reigning champions Bradford Bulls. Over 20,000 Hull FC fans travelled to Old Trafford, but again they lost out to the Saints, this time by 26-4. The overall attendance broke the Grand Final record, mainly due to the stadium's recent expansion.
For the 2007 season, Hull signed five players: Matt Sing (a prolific National Rugby League try-scorer and Australian representative), Hutch Maiava, Willie Manu, Danny Tickle and Wayne Godwin. Also, the Hull FC v Hull Kingston Rovers derbies are back for the 2007 season due to Rovers promotion from National League 1. The first of four of these derby matches was played on Easter Monday, the 9 April 2007 at the KC Stadium. The game was played in front of a sell-out attendance of 23,002 and ended with a result for the Black and Whites who had been struggling early in the season. The final score was 22 - 14 with Sid Domic crossing the line for the Airlie Birds in the final seconds. On April 23 Paul Cooke, stand-off, controversially resigned from Hull FC to join Hull Kingston Rovers. He played his first game for them on Friday April 27 against Huddersfield . On Saturday May 5 Cooke took to the field at the Millennium Stadium for the 200th all Hull derby against Hull FC.
In early June 2007, Hull signed Brisbane's 2006 Clive Churchill Medallist, Shaun Berrigan, for the 2008 season.
Also, in early July 2007, Hull FC played their bitter rivals, Hull Kingston Rover at Craven Park in front of just over 9,000 people, where Hull FC overcame a good first half from Hull Kingston Rovers, and eventually came out 30-20 winners in the enemy's back yard, but unfortunately Hull FC could not carry this form into the next Hull derby where Paul Cooke helped to inflict an embarrassing 42-6 home defeat on the black and whites in front of another sell out crowd.

2008 Squad
2008 Engage Super League
*Round 13 played at Millennium Stadium,Cardiff.
***engage Super League Grand Final to be played at Old Trafford, Manchester.

2008 Fixtures/Results


2008 Transfers in

Hull FC 2007 Transfers out

1980-81: Steve Norton
1981-85: Dave Topliss
1985-87: Lee Crooks
1987-90: Dane O'Hara
1990-92: Greg MacKey
1992-94: Russ Walker
1994-96: Steve McNamara
1996: Gary Divorty
1997: Andy Fisher

Pre-Super League

Super League

Flag of Wales Tommy Harris
Flag of Wales Clive Sullivan Notable Former players

Championship: 1919-20, 1920-21, 1935-36, 1955-56, 1957-58, 1982-83 (6 times)
Challenge Cup: 1913-14, 1981-82, 2005 (3 times)
Premiership: 1990-91
Division Two Championship: 1976-77, 1978-79, 1997 (3 times)
Yorkshire Cup: 1922-23, 1968-69, 1981-82, 1982-83, 1983-84 (5 times)
Yorkshire League: 1918-19, 1922-23, 1926-27, 1935-36 (4 times)
John Player Trophy: 1981-82
BBC2 Floodlit Trophy: 1979-80 (not subsequently contested) Honours


Most tries in a match: 7 by Clive Sullivan vs Doncaster, 15 April 1968
Most goals in a match: 14 by Jim Kennedy vs Rochdale Hornets- 7 April 1921, Sammy Lloyd v Oldham - 10 September 1978, Matt Crowther v Sheffield Eagles - 2 March 2003
Most points in a match: 36 by Jim Kennedy vs Keighley, 29 January 1921
Most tries in a season: 52 by Jack Harrison VC, MC, 1914-15
Most goals in a season: 170 by Geoff 'Sammy' Lloyd, 1978-79
Most points in a season: 369 by Geoff 'Sammy' Lloyd, 1978-79
Consecutive Tries: 11 by Jack Harrison VC, MC, , 1914-15 & Richard Horne, 2006 Career records
Also made their first super league grand final but lost to St Helens in 2006

Highest score: 88-0 vs Sheffield Eagles, 2 March 2003
Highest against: 71-0 vs Bradford Bulls, play offs 2005
Highest attendance: 28,798 vs Leeds, 7 March 1936
Fastest ever try in both codes of rugby: 9 seconds by Lee Jackson for Hull FC in the Yorkshire Cup semi-final against the Sheffield Eagles at the Don Valley Stadium, 1992 This World Record still stands today
Only team to have won every single league game in a season: 1979 Division Two
Most consecutive Super League victories: 13 games, (April 14, 2006July 15, 2006, beating Huddersfield, Wakefield, Catalans, Wigan, Bradford, Leeds, Huddersfield, St Helens, Harlequins, Castleford, Catalans, Salford & Warrington).

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Drumlin field
A drumlin field is a cluster of dozens to hundreds of similarly shaped, sized and oriented drumlins, also called a drumlin swarm. Drumlins are one type of landform that indicate continental ice sheet glaciation. The total depth of glacial deposits may be hundreds of feet deep.

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Microsoft Points

Main article: Xbox Live ArcadeXbox Live Marketplace Xbox Live Arcade
The Video Marketplace is an online service operated by Microsoft that is used to distribute television shows and movies to Xbox 360 owners. The service was launched in USA on November 22, 2006 via Xbox Live. Initial content partners include Paramount Pictures, CBS, TBS, MTV Networks, UFC, NBC, and Warner Bros. Home Entertainment. Other movie studios have since supported the service including Lionsgate Films and Walt Disney Pictures as announced at E3 2007. [1] At the present time, the service is only available to users in the United States, however Microsoft intends to bring the service to Canada and Europe by the end of 2007.
Various films and TV shows are available for purchase on the Video Marketplace, including both past and present series, such as Star Trek and CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. Since then, all such problems have been resolved.
On March 6, 2007, the South Park episode "Good Times with Weapons" was available for free download. However, this episode was free only for the HDTV version until April 3, 2007. Starting on March 13, 2007, all episodes from South Park's 11th season were offered uncensored. Also, starting on July 26, 2007, the pilot episode of Jericho was available for download free of charge for both the Standard and HD versions.

Xbox Live Pipeline
Most criticisms leveled at the Xbox Live service concern the Xbox Live Marketplace. The service has come under fire from both gamers and the gaming press for charging for downloadable content. In many such cases, users were expecting instead that such content would be made available for free.
A notable incident was Microsoft charging for a Gears of War map pack that developer Epic wished to give away for free (although the plan of record is to release it for free in September). In this case, Microsoft Publishing was responsible for setting the price, with this not actually being a policy of the Xbox team or Xbox Live Marketplace as was implied. Free content is indeed possible, as evidenced by the release of a complete Xbox Live Arcade game, Aegis Wing, for users in North America.
Another topic for criticism is that most of the available downloads in the U.S. are not available for other global subscribers. The Video Marketplace, for example, is not available in other regions outside the US. However it will be released in Europe and Canada in Fall 2007, although some other content such as themes or game demos, is still not available in other regions than the US.

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Steve Jobs
Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney..
Forbes senior editor Daniel Lyons runs the blog The Secret Diary of Steve Jobs. The identity of the blogger was for long not known, until journalist Brad Stone reveald Lyons.
Caddes, Carolyn (1986). Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers. Tioga Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-935382-56-9. 
Cringely, Robert X (1996). Accidental Empires. HarperBusiness. ISBN 0-88730-855-4. 
Denning, Peter J. & Frenkel, Karen A. (1989). A Conversation with Steve Jobs. Comm. ACM. Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 437-443. 
Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8. 
Freiberger, Paul & Swaine, Michael (1999). Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer. McGraw-Hill Trade. ISBN 0-07-135892-7. 
Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 0-596-00719-1. 
Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-886411-83-2. 
Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor Press, Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19195-2. 
Levy, Steven (1994). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-85244-9. 
Malone, Michael S. (1999). Infinite Loop. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-85410-638-4.  Bantam Doubleday Dell. ISBN 0-385-48684-7.
Markoff, John (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. ISBN 0-670-03382-0. 
Simon, William L. & Young, Jeffrey S. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-72083-6. 
Stross, Randall E. (1993). Steve Jobs and The NeXT Big Thing. Atheneum Books. ISBN 0-689-12135-0. 
Slater, Robert (1987). Portraits in Silicon. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19262-4.  Chapter 28
Young, Jeffrey S. (1988). Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. Scott, Foresman & Co.. ISBN 0-673-18864-7. 
Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I invented the personal computer, co-founded Apple and had fun doing it. W. W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-06143-4. 
Steve Jobs' Executive Profile at Apple
All about Steve extensive & short biographies, pictures, movies & interviews of or related to Steve Jobs.
Anecdotes from Steve Jobs' early days in Apple as reported by Andy Hertzfeld.
Creating Jobs: Apple's Founder Goes Home Again The New York Times Magazine, Sunday 1997-01-12.
YouTube video of first Jobs' Macworld keynote in 1997, when he returned to Apple, where he announced partnership with Microsoft.
YouTube video of Jobs' commencement address at Stanford University, 2005-06-12.
Text of Jobs' commencement address at Stanford University, 2005-06-12.
Steve Jobs at the Notable Names Database
Steve Jobs at the Internet Movie Database
Steve Jobs Compensation
"Thoughts on Music" by Steve Jobs, 2007-02-06
Smithsonian Institution Oral History InterviewPDF (143 KiB)1995-04-20
Rolling Stone, Steve Jobs: The Rolling Stone Interview - 2003-12-03
BusinessWeek, The Seed of Apple's Innovation2004-10-12
Fortune, How Big Can Apple Get?2005-02-21
'Good for the Soul'Newsweek, 2006-10-15
All Things D, Bill Gates and Steve Jobs (video and transcript of on stage interview - 2007-05-30

Friday, April 25, 2008

The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. The South West Pacific theatre included the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies (excluding Sumatra), Borneo, Australia, the Australian Territory of New Guinea (including the Bismarck Archipelago), the western part of the Solomon Islands and some neighbouring territories. The theatre takes its name from the major Allied command, which was known simply as the "South West Pacific Area".
In the theatre, Empire of Japan forces fought primarily United States and Australian forces. Dutch, Filipino, British and other Allied forces also served in the theatre.
Most Japanese forces in the theatre were part of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group, which was formed on November 6, 1941, under General Hisaichi Terauchi (also known as Count Terauchi), who was ordered to attack and occupy Allied territories in South East Asia and the South Pacific.
On March 30, 1942, the Allied South West Pacific Area command (SWPA) was formed and U.S. General Douglas MacArthur was appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area.

Southwest PacificSouthwest Pacific Major campaigns in the theatre

Philippines campaign, 1941-42

  • Battle of Bataan
    Netherlands East Indies campaign, 1941-1942
    New Guinea campaign, 1942-45

    • Battle of the Coral Sea
      Kokoda Track campaign
      Portuguese Timor, 1942-43
      Philippines campaign, 1944-45

      • Battle of Leyte Gulf
        Borneo campaign, 1945

Thursday, April 24, 2008

A tamale or tamal (from Nahuatl tamalli) is a traditional Native American food consisting of steam-cooked corn meal dough with or without a filling. Tamales can be filled with meats, cheese (post-colonial), and sliced chiles or any preparation according to taste. The tamal is generally wrapped in a corn husk or plantain leaves before cooking, depending on the region they come from.
Tamales have been made throughout the American continent for over 5000 years . Their essence is the corn meal dough made from hominy (called masa), or a masa mix such as Maseca, usually filled with a sweet or savory filling, wrapped in plant leaves or corn husks, and cooked, usually by steaming, until firm. Tamales were developed as a portable ration for use by war parties in the ancient Americas, and were as ubiquitous and varied as the sandwich is today.

Tamales Tamales in the Caribbean

Mexican cuisine
Lotus leaf wrap